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What are the different treatment options for patients with malignant tumors? A. Gastrostomy tubes can be used for both feeding and intestinal deco...

What are the different treatment options for patients with malignant tumors?

A. Gastrostomy tubes can be used for both feeding and intestinal decompression, but there is a risk of aspiration in patients with lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction or without intact gag reflex.
B. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) catheters are an option for treating liver metastases in patients with unresectable disease. HAI chemotherapy is directed at liver metastases, where most of their blood supply comes from the hepatic artery circulation.
C. Neutropenic enterocolitis is more common in patients treated with chemotherapy who remain neutropenic for more than 7 days. Symptoms include febrile neutropenia, diarrhea, abdominal distension, and pain in the right iliac fossa.
D. Biliary obstruction can be caused by metastases from various types of cancer, including breast, colon, stomach, lung, and ovarian cancer. The initial therapeutic strategy is endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with stent placement or percutaneous transhepatic drainage.
E. Patients with malignant neoplasms who experience gastrointestinal bleeding should undergo the same diagnostic studies as those without malignancies. Immediate treatment should include fluid replacement, correction of coagulopathy, and studies to determine the source of bleeding.
F. The most common cause of pericardial tamponade in cancer patients is metastatic involvement of the pericardium, which leads to neoplastic obstruction of the pericardial lymphatics. The most frequently implicated tumors are lung cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and primary cardiac neoplasms.
G. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is due to an obstruction of the outflow from the superior vena cava (SVC) due to external compression by a malignant tumor, fibrosis, or thrombosis. In more than 95% of patients, SVCS is due to a malignant tumor.
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